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HEOR cardiovascular publications

The cardiovascular team has expertise in clinical outcomes evaluation, treatment compliance, quality of life, and costs and utilization.


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Steen DL, Khan I, Andrade K, Koumas A, Giugliano RP. Event rates and risk factors for recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in a contemporary post-acute coronary syndrome population representing 239,234 patients during 2005 to 2018 in the United States. J Am Heart Assoc. 2022 May 3;11(9):e022198. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.121.022198.

Derington CG, Bress AP, Herrick JS, Fan W, Wong ND, Andrade KE, Johnson J, Philip S, Abrahamson D, Jiao L, Bhatt DL, Weintraub WS. The potential population health impact of treating REDUCE-IT eligible U.S. adults with icosapent ethyl. Am J Prev Cardiol. 2022 Apr 28;10:100345. doi:

Weintraub WS, Bhatt DL, Zhang Z, Dolman S, Boden WE, Bress AP, King JB, Bellows BK, Tajeu GS, Derington CG, Johnson J, Andrade K, Steg PG, Miller M, Brinton EA, Jacobson TA, Tardif JC, Ballantyne CM, Kolm P. Cost-effectiveness of icosapent ethyl for high-risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia despite statin treatment. JAMA Network Open. 2022 Feb 1;5(2):e2148172. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.48172.

Claxton JS, Chamberlain AM, Lutsey PL, MacLehose RF, Bengtson LGS, Alonso A. Association of multimorbidity with cardiovascular endpoints and treatment effectiveness in patients 75 years and older with atrial fibrillation. Am J Med. 2020 Oct;133(10):e554-e567. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.03.038. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Eby EL, Bengtson LGS, Johnson MP, Burton ML, Hinnenthal J. Economic impact of cardiac implantable electronic device infections: Cost analysis at one year in a large U.S. health insurer. J Med Econ. 2020;23(7):698-705.

Toth PP, Fazio S, Wong ND, Hull M, Nichols GA. Risk of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertriglyceridemia: A review of real-world evidence. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2020 Mar;22(3):279-89.

LaRosa AR, Claxton J, O’Neal WT, Lutsey PL, Chen LY, Bengtson L, Chamberlain AM, Alonso A, Magnani JW. Association of household income and adverse outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation. Heart. 2020 Nov;106(21):1679-1685. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2019-316065. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Toth PP, Philip S, Hull M, Granowitz C. Elevated triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL) and high triglycerides (200–499 mg/dL) are significant predictors of new heart failure diagnosis: A real-world analysis of high-risk statin-treated patients. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2019 Dec;15:533-38.

Toth PP, Philip SP, Hull M, Granowitz C. Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of peripheral arterial revascularization in high-risk statin-treated patients: A large administrative retrospective analysis. Clin Cardiol. 2019 Oct;42(10):908-13.

Case BC, Bress AP, Kolm P, Philip S, Herrick JS, Granowitz CB, Toth PP, Fan W, Wong ND, Hull M, Weintraub W. The economic burden of hypertriglyceridemia among U.S. adults with diabetes or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease on statin therapy. J Clin Lipidol. 2019 Sep-Oct;13(5):754-61.

Toth PP, Philip S, Hull M, Granowitz C. Association of elevated triglycerides with increased cardiovascular risk and direct costs in statin-treated patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Sep;94(9):1670-80.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Anderson A, Philip S. Long-term statin persistence is poor among high-risk patients with dyslipidemia: A real-world administrative claims analysis. Lipids Health Dis. 2019 Sept 16;18(1):175.

O’Neal WT, Alam AB, Sandesara PB, Claxton JS, MacLehose RF, Chen LY, Bengtson LGS, Chamberlain AM, Norby FL, Lutsey PL, Alonso A. Sex and racial differences in cardiovascular disease risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0222147.

Toth PP, Philip SP, Hull M, Granowitz C. Elevated triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL) and high triglycerides (200–499 mg/dL) are significant predictors of hospitalization for new onset kidney disease: A real-world analysis of high-risk statin-treated patients. CardioRenal Medicine. 2019 Aug;9(6):400-07.

Claxton JS, MacLehose RF, Lutsey PL, Norby FL, Chen LY, O’Neal WT, Chamberlain AM, Bengtson LGS, Alonso A. A new model to predict ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation using warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants. Heart Rhythm. 2019 June;16(6):820-26.

Albert NM, Swindle JP, Buysman EK, Chang C. Lower hospitalization and healthcare costs with sacubitril/valsartan versus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker in a retrospective analysis of patients with heart failure. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 May;8(9):e011089.

Teal S, Auger WR, Hughes RJ3 Ramey DR, Lewis KS, O’Brien G, Yaldo A, Burton TM, Bancroft T, Seare J, Fabian J. Validation of a claims-based algorithm to identify patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using electronic health record data. Pulm Circ. 2019 Jan-Mar; 9(1):2045894018814772.

Highland KB, Hull M, Pruett J, Elliott C, Tsang Y, Drake W. Baseline history of patients using selexipag for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Ther Adv Respir Dis. Jan-Dec 2019;13:1753466619843774. doi: 10.1177/1753466619843774.

Chen LY, Norby FL, Chamberlain AM, MacLehose RF, Bengtson LG, Lutsey PL, Alonso A. CHA2DS2-VASc score and stroke prediction in atrial fibrillation in Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. Stroke. 2019;50:28-33

Trocio J, Rosen VM, Gupta A, Dina O, Vo L, Hlavacek P, Rosenblatt L. Systematic literature review of treatment patterns for venous thromboembolism patients during transitions from inpatient to post-discharge settings. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2018 Dec 19;11:23-49.

Studer S, Hull M, Pruett J, Koep E, Tsang Y, Drake W. Treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization, and healthcare costs among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in a real-world U.S. database. Pulm Circ. Jan-Mar 2019;9(1):2045894018816294. doi: 10.1177/2045894018816294. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Chen N, Lutsey PL, MacLehose RF, Claxton JS, Norby FL, Chamberlain AM, Bengtson LGS, ONeal WT, Chen LY, Alonso A. Association of oral anticoagulant type with risk of dementia among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(21):e009561.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Philip S. Elevated triglycerides (>150 mg/dL) and high triglycerides (200-499 mg/dL) are significant predictors of new heart failure diagnosis: A real-world analysis of high-risk statin-treated patients. J Cardiac Failure. 2018 Aug;24(8s):S32.

O’Neal WT, Sandesara PB, Claxon JS, MacLehose RF, Chen LY, Bengtson LGS, Chamberlain AM, Norby FL, Lutsey PL, Alonso A. Influence of sociodemographic factors and provider specialty on anticoagulation prescription fill patterns and outcomes in atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2018 Aug 1; 122(3):388-94.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Philip S. Diabetes mellitus and high triglycerides are significant predictors of major cardiovascular events and increased health care costs and resource utilization — A real-world analysis of high-risk statin-treated patients. Diabetes. 2018 Jul; 67(s1):416-P.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Liassou D, Anderson A, Philip S. High triglycerides are associated with increased cardiovascular events, medical costs, and resource utilization: A real-world administrative claims analysis of statin-treated patients with high residual cardiovascular risk. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Aug 7;7(15):E008740.

Fust K, Parthan A, Li X, Sharma A, Zhang X, Campioni M, Lin J, Wang X, Zur R, Cetin K, Eisen M, Chandler D. Cost per response analysis of strategies for chronic immune thrombocytopenia. Am J Manag Care. 2018 Jul;24(8 Spec No):SP294-SP302.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Philip S. High triglycerides are significant predictors of major CV events and increased costs in statin-treated patients: Real-world analysis. J Clin Lipid. 2018 Mar-Apr;12(2):528-29.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Hull M, Philip S. Elevated triglycerides and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are significant predictors of major cardiovascular events and increased health care costs in statin-treated patients: A real-world analysis. J Manag Care Pharm. 2018 Apr;24(4-a Suppl):S70.

Hull M, Pruett J, Elliott C, Tsang Y, Drake W. Treatment patterns prior to initiation of a prostacyclin receptor agonist for pulmonary arterial hypertension in a real-world database representing a large U.S. heath plan. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2018 Apr;24(4-a Suppl):S69.

Henk HJ, Cao F, Tuell K, Price K, Singh P, Mardekian J, Odell K, Patel C, Tan W, Sands GH, Singhal S, Trocio J, Vo L. Treatment and discharge patterns among patients hospitalized with non-valvular atrial fibrillation transitioning from the inpatient to outpatient setting. Curr Med Res Opin. 2018 Mar;34(3):539-46.

Ghosh S, Swindle JP, White JC, Sander SD, Wang C. Predictors of healthcare costs after initiating dabigatran versus warfarin. Am J Pharm Benefits. 2018 Feb;10(1):22-30.

Turner SJ, Swindle JP, Obi EN, Russo PA, Altan A. Pharmacotherapy timing in heart failure and impact on healthcare costs. Am J Pharm Benefits. 2017 Nov;9(6):e8-e15.

Toth P, Granowitz C, Philip S, Liassou D, Anderson A, Hull M. Baseline characteristics of a retrospective claims analysis of cardiovascular outcomes and health care resource utilization and costs in high-risk statin-treated patients with hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Lipidol. 2017 May-June;11(3):797.

Steen DL, Khan I, Becker L, Food JM, Gorcyca K, Sanchez RJ, Giugliano RP. Patterns and predictors of lipid-lowering therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus in 2014: Insights form a large U.S. managed-care population. Clin Cardiol. 2017 Mar;40(3):155-62.

Okerson T, Patel J, DiMario S, Burton T, Seare J, Harrison DJ. Effect of 2013 ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guidelines on statin treatment patterns and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease patients. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 March;6(3).

Hull M, Pruett J, Koep E, Tsang Y, Drake W. Characteristics of patients treated for pulmonary arterial hypertension in real-world database representing a large U.S. health plan. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2017 Mar;23(3-a Suppl):S71.

Obi EN, Swindle JP, Turner SJ, Russo PA, Altan A. Healthcare costs among patients with heart failure: a comparison of costs between matched decedent and survivor cohorts. Adv Ther. 2017 Jan;34(1):261-76.

Obi EN, Swindle JP, Turner SJ, Russo PA, Altan A. Health care costs for patients with heart failure escalate nearly 3-fold in final months of life. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2016 Dec;22(12):1446-56.

Coleman CI, Peacock WF, Fermann GJ, Crivera C, Weeda ER, Hull M, DuCharme M, Becker L, Schein JR. External validation of a multivariable claims-based rule for predicting in-hospital mortality and 30-day post-pulmonary embolism complications. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Oct 22;16(1):610.

Swindle J, Chan W, Waltman Johnson K, Becker L, Blauer-Peterson C, Altan A. Evaluation of mortality following hospitalization with heart failure. Curr Med Res Opin. 2016 Aug;2:1-11.

Bancroft T, Lim J, Wang C, Sander S, Swindle J. Health care resource utilization, costs, and persistence in patients newly diagnosed as having nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and newly treated with dabigatran versus warfarin in the United States. Clin Ther. 2016 Mar;38(3):545-56.

Henk HJ, Paoli CJ, Gandra SR. A retrospective study to examine healthcare costs related to cardiovascular events in individuals with hyperlipidemia. Adv Ther. 2015 Nov;32(11):1104-16.

Patel H, Kielhorn A, Maya J, Song R, Henk HJ. Current heart failure management patterns in Medicare Advantage patients: A contemporary United States claims database analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Mar;65(10):A1022.

Burke JP, Hunsche E, Reguiler E, Nagao M, Buzinec P, Drake III W. Characterizing pulmonary hypertension-related hospitalization costs among Medicare Advantage or commercially insured patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: A retrospective database study. Am J Manag Care. 2015 Jan;21(3 Suppl):S47-S58.

Sikirica M, Iorga SR, Bancroft T, Potash J. The economic burden of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the U.S. payers and patients. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 Dec 24;14:676.

Deitelzweig SB, Jing Y, Swindle JP, Makenbaeva D. Reviewing a clinical decision aid for the selection of anticoagulation treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: Applications in a U.S. managed care health plan database. Clin Ther. 2014 Nov;36(11):1566-73.

Phelps CE, O’Sullivan AK, Ladapo JA, Weinstein MC, Leahy K, Douglas PS. Cost effectiveness of a gene expression score and myocardial perfusion imaging for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Am Heart J. 2014 May;167(5):697-706.

Burton T, Fan Y, Kwong WJ. Dosing frequency and adherence in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Am J Pharm Benefits. 2014;6(2):e31-e40.

Christian JB, Arondekar B, Buysman EK, Jacobson TA, Snipes RG, Horwitz I. Determining triglyceride reductions needed for clinical impact in severe hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Med. 2014 Jan;127(1):36-44.

Deitelzweig SB, Pinsky B, Buysman E, Lacey M, Makenbaeva D, Wiederkehr D, Graham J. Bleeding as an outcome among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in a large managed care population. Clin Ther. 2013 Oct;35(10):1536-45.

Deitelzweig SB, Buysman EPinsky B, Lacey M, Jing Y, Wiederkehr D, Graham J. Warfarin use and stroke risk among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in a large managed care population. Clin Ther. Aug 2013;35(8):1201-10.

Parthan A, Leahy KJ, O'Sullivan AK, Iakoubova OA, Bare LA, Devlin JJ, Weinstein MC. Cost effectiveness of targeted high-dose atorvastatin therapy following genotype testing in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Pharmacoeconomics. 2013 Jun;31(6):519-31.

Ferrario CM, Panjabi S, Buzinec P, Swindle JP. Clinical and economic outcomes associated with amlodipine/renin-angiotensin system blocker combinations. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Feb;7(1):27-39.

Panjabi S, Lacey M, Bancroft T, Cao F. Treatment adherence, clinical outcomes, and economics of triple-drug therapy in hypertensive patients. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2013 Jan-Feb;7(1):46-60.

Copher R, Cerulli A, Watkins A, Monsalvo ML. Treatment patterns and healthcare system burden of managed care patients with suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States. J Med Econ. 2012 Oct 1;15(5):947-55.

Christian JB, Arondekar B, Buysman EK, Johnson SL, Seeger JD, Jacobson TA. Clinical and economic benefits observed when follow-up triglyceride levels are less than 500 mg/dL in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Lipidol. 2012 Sep-Oct;6(5):450-61.

Phelps CE, Buysman EK, Gomez Rey G. Costs and clinical outcomes associated with use of ranolazine for the treatment of angina. Clin Ther. 2012 Jun;34(6):1395-1407.

Swindle J, Potash J, Kulakodlu M, Kuznik A, Buikema A. Drug utilization patterns and cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients newly initiated on atorvastatin or simvastatin. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2011 Dec;9(6):471-82.

Swindle J, Buzinec P, Iorga SR, Ramaswamy K, Panjabi S. Long-term clinical and economic outcomes associated with angiotensin II receptor blocker use in hypertensive patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011 Sep; 27(9):1719-31.

Kempf J, Buysman E, Brixner D. Health resource utilization and direct costs associated with angina for patients with coronary artery disease in a U.S. managed care setting. Am Health Drug Benefits. 2011 Sep;4(6):353-61.

O’Sullivan AK, Rubin J, Nyambose J, Kuznik A, Cohen DJ, Thompson D. Cost estimation of cardiovascular disease events in the U.S. Pharmacoeconomics. 2011 Aug;29(8):693-704.

Engel-Nitz NM, Sanders S, Harley CGomez Rey G, Shah H. Costs and outcomes of noncardioemboloic ischemic stroke in a managed care population. Vasc Health Risk Manage. 2010 Oct;6:905-13.

Engel-Nitz NMDarkow T, Lau H. Antihypertensive medication changes and blood pressure goal achievement in a managed care population. J Hum Hypertens. 2010 Oct;24(10):659-68.

Harley C, Sander SD, Zarotsky VCao F, Shah H. Burden of illness among patients at high risk versus low risk for major cardiovascular events. J Med Econ. 2010 May;13(3):436-46.

Burke JP, Sander S, Zarotsky VHenk H. Impact of persistence with antiplatelet therapy on recurrent ischemic stroke and predictors of nonpersistence among ischemic stroke survivors. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 May;26(5):1023-30.

Angalakuditi M, Buysman E, Edgell E, Bancroft T, Beardsworth A. Treatment patterns and resource utilization and costs among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States. J Med Econ. 2010 May;13(3):393-402.

Rublee DA, Burke JP. LDL-C goal attainment in patients who remain on atorvastatin or switch to equivalent or non-equivalent doses of simvastatin: A retrospective matched cohort study in clinical practice. Postgrad Med. 2010 Mar; 122(2):16-24.

Kind AJ, Smith MA, Liou JI, Pandhi N, Frytak JR, Finch MD. Discharge destination’s effect on bounce-back risk in Black, White, and Hispanic acute ischemic stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Feb;91(2):189-95.

Chastek BRiedel AA, Wygant G, Hauch O. An evaluation of hospitalization and follow-up care costs among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated with a stent and clopidogrel. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Dec;25(12):2845-52.

Toth P, Zarotsky VSullivan J, Laitinen D. Dyslipidemia treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus in a U.S. managed care plan: A retrospective database analysis. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009 Jun;8(1):26.

Toth P, Zarotsky VSullivan J, Laitinen D. Niacin and fibrate use among patients with high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 May;25(6):1355-63.

Roberts CS, Gorelick PH, Ye XHarley CRGoldberg GA. Additional stroke-related and non–stroke-related cardiovascular costs and hospitalizations in managed care patients following ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2009 Apr;40(4):1425-32.

Pandhi N, Smith MA, Kind AJ, Frytak JR, Finch MD. The quality of diabetes care following hospitalization for ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009 Jan;27(3):235-40.

duPreez AE, Smith MA, Liou JI, Frytak JR, Finch MD, Cleary JF, Kind AJ. Predictors of hospice utilization among acute stroke patients who died within thirty days. J Palliat Med. 2008 Nov;11(9):1249-57.

Toth P, Zarotsky VSullivan J, Laitinen D. Lipid therapy utilization rates in a managed-care mixed dyslipidemia population. J Clin Lipidol. 2008 Oct;2(5):365-74.

Engel-Nitz NM, Martin S, Sun P, Buesching D, Fonseca V. Cardiovascular events and insulin therapy: A retrospective cohort analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Jul;81(1):97-104.

Kind AJ, Smith MA, Liou JI, Pandhi N, Frytak JR, Finch MD. The price of bouncing back: One-year mortality and payments for acute stroke patients with 30-day bounce-backs. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Jun;56(6):999-1005.

Harley C, Gandhi S, Heien HNelson SP. The comparative effectiveness of rosuvastatin vs. other statins in patients with an increased risk of failure to reach NCEP ATP III goal. Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Jun;62(6):889-95.

Harley C, Gandhi SK, Anoka N, Bullano MF, McKenney JM. Understanding practice patterns and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment implications of switching patients from simvastatin in a health plan setting. Am J Manag Care. 2007 Dec;13 Suppl 10:S276-81.

Harley C, Gandhi S, Blasetto J, Heien H, Sasane R, Nelson SP. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and LDL-C goal attainment among elderly patients treated with rosuvastatin compared with other statins in routine clinical practice. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2007 Sep;5(3):185-94.

Ye X, Gross CR, Schommer J, Cline R, Xuan J, St Peter WL. Initiation of statins after hospitalization for coronary heart disease. J Manag Care Pharm. 2007 Jun;13(5):385-96.

Kind AJ, Smith MA, Frytak JR, Finch MD. Bouncing back: Patterns and predictors of complicated transitions 30 days after hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 Mar;55(3):365-73.

McGarry LJ, Stokes ME, Thompson D. Outcomes of thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin vs. unfractionated heparin in medical inpatients. Thromb J. 2006 Sep 27;4:17.

Etemad LR, McCollam PL. Predictors of high-cost managed care patients with acute coronary syndrome. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005 Dec;21(12):1977-84.

Smith MA, Frytak JR, Liou JI, Finch MD. Rehospitalization and survival for stroke patients in managed care and traditional Medicare plans. Med Care. 2005 Sep;43(9):902-10.

Meyer JWSchultz JS, O’Donnell JC, Patel PA, Sasane RM. Patterns and effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapies in a managed care environment. Value Health. 2005 Sep-Oct;8(5):601-12.

McCollam P, Etemad L. Cost of care for new-onset acute coronary syndrome patients who undergo coronary revascularization. J Invasive Cardiol. 2005 Jun;17(6):307-11.

Schultz JS, O’Donnell JC, McDonough KL, Sasane R, Meyer J. Determinants of compliance with statin therapy and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment in a managed care population. Am J Manag Care. 2005 May;11(5):306-12.

Etemad LR, McCollam PL. Total first-year costs of acute coronary syndrome in a managed care setting. J Manag Care Pharm. 2005 May;11(4):300-06.

Harley CRiedel AA, Hauch O, Nelson M, Wygant G, Reynolds M. Anticoagulation therapy in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: A retrospective claims data analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005 Feb;21(2):215-22.

Harley C, Wagner S. The prevalence of cardiorenal risk factors in patients prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Data from managed care. Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25(1):139-49.

Burton TLacey MLiu F, Yu Y, Monsalvo ML, Lang K, Sander S. One-year follow-up healthcare costs of patients hospitalized for transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke and discharged with aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole or clopidogrel. J Med Econ. 2012;15(6):1217-25.

Rosen VM, Taylor DC, Parekh H, Pandya A, Thompson D, Kuznik A, Waters DD, Drummond MWeinstein MC. Cost effectiveness of intensive lipid-lowering treatment for patients with congestive heart failure and coronary heart disease in the U.S. Pharmacoeconomics. 2010;28(1):47-60.

Shetty SHalpern R, McCollam PL. Cost of care for new versus recurrent acute coronary syndrome patients. J Med Econ. 2008;11(1):81-99.

Kind AJ, Smith MA, Pandhi N, Frytak JR, Finch MD. Bouncing-back: Rehospitalization in patients with complicated transitions in the first thirty days after hospital discharge for acute stroke. Home Health Care Serv Q. 2007;26(4):37-55.

Smith MA, Liou JI, Frytak JR, Finch MD. 30-day survival and rehospitalization for stroke patients according to physician specialty. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;22(1):21-26.

Kohli M, Attard C, Lam A, Huse D, Cook J, Bourgault C, Alemao E, Yin D, Marentette M. Cost effectiveness of adding ezetimibe to atorvastatin therapy in patients not at cholesterol treatment goal in Canada. Pharmacoeconomics. 2006;24(8):815-30.